Using Selenium Script to automate web browsers is a powerful way of testing web applications and ensuring they work correctly. It is used by developers to test web applications and ensure they function correctly. Using Selenium, web applications can be tested across various browsers and platforms using a free (open-source) automated testing framework. Multiple programming languages are supported when creating Selenium Test Scripts, including Java, C#, Python, etc. Selenium Testing is usually referred to as Selenium Testing when it is used. You should be prepared to answer some questions during your interview regarding Selenium Script and how you handle dynamic elements in Selenium.
What are Dynamic Elements in Selenium?
As the name implies, dynamic elements are the Web Elements whose IDs and other attributes, such as Class Name, Value, etc. are not fixed. They change every time you reload the page. As a result, you cannot simply handle that element by the exact values of a locator.
The dynamic elements are either database-driven or session-driven. Editing a dynamic element in a database affects several aspects of the tested application. Generally, dynamic identifiers are used for text boxes and buttons. Dynamic elements are solely content, with formatting laid out in the design.
A dynamic website will result in your test failing once the content changes, so you’ll need to update your test case every time the content changes, which is tiresome and not a generic solution.
We need to understand how these elements behave when we reload a page or enter a new session. Once we understand them, we can devise a strategy to interact with them.
Example answers to How Do You Handle Dynamic Elements in Selenium?
The reason why interviewers ask you ‘how do you handle’ questions is to determine how you deal with situations you can encounter on the job. Your goal is to prove that you’re the perfect candidate to handle these situations.
Below we discuss three different answer examples that you can use in your preparation to interview questions about handling dynamic elements in Selenium.
Example Answer 1:
‘It can be challenging to handle dynamic elements in Selenium because they constantly change. To handle dynamic elements, there are a few steps I follow.
You will be able to identify dynamic elements and their associated attributes if you understand the HTML structure of the element.
A unique attribute or identifier should also be assigned to the element so it can be located when it changes. Common unique identifiers include IDs, class names, and name attributes.
Next, I use the WebDriverWait class to set a condition on the element. This will allow me to wait until the element is present before interacting with it.
To interact with the element, I use the Actions class. This allows me to perform actions such as clicking, sending keys, and selecting. These steps help me handle dynamic elements in Selenium successfully.
Example Answer 2:
‘Selenium provides several techniques and methods for handling dynamic elements when automating web-based applications.
With the WebDriverWait class, you can wait for an element to become available for a specified period of time. Once the element becomes available, you can interact with it. Due to network latency or other issues, this method is useful when handling elements that may take a while to load.
Finally, you can also use the Actions class to interact with dynamic elements. This class allows you to perform mouse and keyboard actions on the page, which can be useful for interacting with elements that may not be immediately visible.
Understanding how to use Selenium’s tools to create well-designed, reliable, and robust automated tests is important.’
Example Answer 3:
‘Selenium’s dynamic elements can be challenging to handle. I usually use locator strategies like XPath, CSS Selectors, etc., to handle such elements to locate the dynamic elements.
In order to locate the dynamic elements of a web page, I use functions like contains(), starts-with(), ends-with(), text(), etc. These functions allow me to locate the dynamic elements automatically.
Additionally, I can locate dynamic elements using WebDriver methods such as executeScript() and findElements().
A dynamic element can also be handled using Selenium Advanced User Interactions API. This API allows me to locate and interact with dynamic elements.’
Related: ‘How to answer behavioral interview questions‘
Ways to Locate Dynamic Elements in Selenium
There are several reasons why it is not as straightforward as it appears to use the readily available attributes of a web element.
To achieve the best results, it is best to write custom XPath or CSS Selectors. CSS Locators are more efficient and are approximately ten times faster than XPath Locators. However, XPath Locators also have several advantages. Automation developers can choose the appropriate one according to the scenarios they encounter.
Syntax for Customized Xpath:
//tagName[@attribute = “value”]
For example: //input[@type = “email”]
This method has several advantages, including the freedom to use any of the attributes associated with the Tags in which the element is present instead of just ID, Name, Class Name, etc.
Syntax for Customized CSS:
tagName[attribute = “value”]
For Example: input[type = “email”]